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  1. #1
    Ancient Alien Newbie! skywizard's Avatar
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    Easter Island collapse theory questioned


    Easter Island Moai overlooking the Pacific ocean. Image Credit: CC BY-SA 3.0 Gallardoval

    Academics have cast doubt on the idea that the inhabitants used up all the island's natural resources.

    The enigmatic Pacific island has long held the attention of archaeologists who have struggled to understand exactly what it was that wiped out the people famous for building hundreds of giant stone head statues.

    The prevailing theory is that the islanders, known as the Rapa Nui, wiped themselves out over time by using up all of the island's resources in their statue-building endeavors, earning them the accolade of being the best known example of a society that destroyed itself through over-exploitation.

    In recent years however this idea has been called in to question, mainly on the basis that the Rapa Nui, far from exhibiting such recklessness, seemed to be masters of agricultural engineering and were more than capable of fertilizing the soil sufficiently to grow the crops needed to feed themselves.

    Scientific evidence also seems to suggest that the islanders didn't waste all of their resources, with radiocarbon data indicating that the island was utilized well past the point at which European travelers arrived. There is also evidence to suggest that the removal of the trees happened very gradually over the course of several hundred years.

    So if over-exploitation wasn't responsible for the islanders' disappearance, then what was?


    Source: http://cosmosmagazine.com/features/c...island-theory/


    peace...
    ~~ Never Stop Looking For What's Not There ~~

  2. #2
    Ancient Alien Senior Member Marlene's Avatar
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    Hey did you see the new discovery concerning these statues. They found that they are not just heads but they also have bodies which are buried in the earth and they are covered with writings.

    check out this video:http://youtu.be/88XgGUxGR14

  3. #3
    Ancient Alien Senior Member Marlene's Avatar
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    Sunday, April 20, 2014

    Easter Island Giants???



    Easter Island in the South Pacific is an ongoing mystery to many.

    What happened to the Rapa Nui people?
    Did they get visitors OR were they visitors themselves?
    Why did they construct these enormous Moai statues OR DID THEY?
    What's with this supposed battle researchers claim occurred there between two groups?

    Let's go back in a time a bit and look at what was happening in the South Pacific long ago.

    There was a time in ancient Peru when they were visited by seafaring people who were tall, had elongated skulls, red hair, white skin, and more advanced skills/technology. These people were also found in skeletal remains in the South Pacific from New Guinea to Solomon Islands, Australia to Peru. These seafarers left behind a legacy of people who gained skills rapidly from them and also wished to bind their skulls to appear like them. These giant people with tendencies towards cannibalism, sloping foreheads, pointed backs to their heads and wide noses were emulated, even worked into art, feared and perhaps revered.

    Was this so in yet another South Pacific location a seafaring giant race would stop?

    It's believed the Rapa Nui settled the islands around 1200 AD. The first recorded contact with outsidersthat was officially notedwas in 1722, but in 1770, the Spanish arrived and claimed it as their own. They brought with them syphilis and other diseases the people had no immunity to.

    Moai statues were supposedly created by the Rapa Nui around 1200 CE (AD) and supposedly carved to represent their ancestors, but this was disputed by other researchers who say the Rapa Nui were the second migration to Easter Island (like Native Americans or Amerinds were considered second migration to America after the Otamid people - elongated skull people with robust skeletons). Legends say the long-earred ones (white skinned, red-haired, elongated earlobes) were first migration to Easter Island and built the Moai statues which interestingly are giant, slope-headed, wide-nosed, with pointed heads in the back.





    The Rapa Nui were supposed to have faced near extinction to the point of cannibalism. The cave named "Ana Kai Tangata" actually translates to "man-eating cave." It was believed some kind of ritual in the caves occurred with the eating of humans and signs of cannibalism. Who do we know that liked caves, traveling by boat, and eating humans?

    Repeated theme: There were very giant, slope-headed, cannibalistic people in the Pacific. They were found from Australia and Indonesia, New Guinea to Solomon Islands, Peru to Mexico, Catalina Island in California up the ancient waterways into Nevada. All of these Pacific areas were visited by those in reed boats. In fact, Peru, where they found elongated, red-haired skulls, they had a legend of the giants landing in reed boats and terrorizing them and eating the population, as do other areas in the Pacific have such legends.

    In the 1830s a ship's captain described, "…the men are Copper colored, Athletic, tall and well made. I saw none [males] under five feet eight, and I measured one who was six feet three…. The women and a few [of] the men are of a much lighter color. Their bodies are longer and the Pelvis narrower than those of England, or indeed in Civilized Europe; but their limbs, feet, hands, eyes and teeth are handsome and beautiful. The men have all good teeth also. . . . From the waist downwards, both before and behind, the women are most tastefully and beautifully tattooed…”


    From the book Cranial and Postcranial Skeletal Remains From Easter Island by Rupert Ivan Murrill, the skulls on Easter Island were compared with other Pacificers and found similar to Melanesian, Polynesian and Australian. The skulls were long, narrow, and high. Heyerdahl (1960 p 345) - Long ears are Peruvian - (white men with red hair?) The short ears arrived at Easter Island in the 1200s - after long ears! Heyerdahl (1961 page 37) mentions Knoche's statement that short earred ones came there in 1200s.

    The Long Ears of Easter Island by William L. Ernst
    From Thor Heyerdahl's book "Aku-Aku"
    The earliest date of human occupation of Easter Island was established at 386 A.D. (plus or minus 100 years) by archaeologists in Heyerdahl's expedition who used carbon dating of charcoal found at cooking sites. The oral history describes the "long ears" as the early period's population and the builders of the monuments. The "short ears" came to the island later and apparently worked for the "long ears" as helpers. A deadly feud occurred and the "short-ears" reversed a trap set for them and murdered the "long-ears" at Hotu-iti

    Interestingly the legend of the short ears and long ears tells that the long ears dug a ditch and filled it with brush to lead the short ears into it and burn them. A long-ear married to a short-ear betrayed her kind and she betrayed his kind, getting the short ears to come up behind them and chase the long-ears into the burning ditch and two escaped to a cave where one was killed and one remained alive. (Burning of giants - found in the Paiutes legend in Nevada and the Aborigines story in Australia). Interestingly, repeatedly natives of the Americas tell of these white-skinned, red-haired giants being cannibals and also taking them in and making them slaves until they were able to outsmart and kill them.

    There is no doubt that these stories from all over the world that repeat the same theme are playing out a scenario told by ancestors of legendary battles or even wishes and hopes that their people outsmarted and rose up against the giants.

    Was Easter Island first inhabited by the ancient giants? Were the Rapa Nui credited for feats that were not of their own doing? Considering the highly controversial study of the island and how it fell, we should take another look at the island with a fresh eye - one that looks at the facts - sea-faring giants present in the South Pacific who were cannibals, powerful, and looked like the statues on the island.

    NOTE: As an interesting side note - the Karankawa Indians of Texas coast were reported as having ear spools (long ears) made of unknown shark vertebra, Otamid skulls (strong brow ridge, sloping forehead, pointed back of the head) and were between 6-7 feet tall on average. They were also reported as cannibals in the past.

    Even more resources

    An anthropologist disputes deforestation collapse - source.
    Did they die by deforestation? There is some question - source.
    About the caves - source
    Last edited by Marlene; 01-21-2015 at 10:54 AM.

  4. #4
    Ancient Alien Member harte's Avatar
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    Washington D.C. GIANTS!!!

    OB-YI334_lincol_G_20130726092334.jpg

    Harte
    Most people would die sooner than think; in fact, they do so. - Bertrand Russell

  5. #5
    Ancient Alien Senior Member Marlene's Avatar
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    New evidence: Easter Island civilization was not destroyed by war

    Researchers debunk a longstanding myth using elliptical Fourier analysis on ancient tools.

    by Annalee Newitz - Feb 17, 2016 2:36pm EST

    These moai on Easter Island were so imposing that Europeans couldn't believe they'd been created by just a couple thousand people.
    Arian Zwegers


    Hundreds of years ago, an advanced, seafaring civilization called Rapa Nui built more than 800 monuments that were so massive and ambiguous that they remain a mystery to this day. The Easter Island statues, or moai, are enormous stone figures placed along the coastline as if surveying the island's interior lands. One of archaeology's greatest mysteries is what happened to the Rapa Nui of Easter Island.

    Now, new evidence from archaeological investigations has overturned a popular myth about the demise of the Rapa Nui civilization on the island. For centuries, observers believed that the Rapa Nui suffered a catastrophic population crash. But there is no scientific evidence to support this idea, say a group of researchers in the latest issue of the journal Antiquity. That story about environmental collapse and warfare you read about in Jared Diamond's bestseller Collapse? Totally wrong.

    Origins of the myth

    First of all, the Rapa Nui haven't been wiped off the face of the Earth: the Rapa Nui people still make up over half the Polynesian population today. Their ancestors likely arrived on Easter Island, now part of Chile, roughly a millennium ago. They came in the sophisticated canoes that allowed Polynesians to bring their cultures to dozens of islands in the Pacific Ocean, from Hawaii to Samoa and New Zealand. And they also brought their moai, many of which were quarried on other islands that the Rapa Nui controlled.

    When Europeans arrived on Easter Island in the eighteenth century, they were stunned by the sheer awesomeness of the moai. They guessed that an enormous number of people must have built the statues, and they were surprised to discover that the island's population was only about 3,000 people. Archaeologist Carl Lipo, an author on the new paper, told Ars:
    When the Dutch captain Jacob Roggeveen arrives on the island in 1722, he estimates roughly 3000 people. Later, when confronted by the massive statues, Europeans such as Captain Cook in 1774 assume that there must have been lots more people on the island at one time. Others follow the same kind of argument, including Jared Diamond. He (and others) argue that there must have been 10,000 or 20,000 (or 30,000!) people, not because of the archaeological record or any direct evidence of demography but from the assumption that the statues must have required huge populations.
    This assumption gave rise to a mystery. What had decimated the great civilization of Easter Island? Why were there so few of the Rapa Nui left?

    The most common answer, popularized by Diamond, was that the Rapa Nui had greedily used up all the island's resources. They ate all the food, cut down all the trees, and were left to squabble over the remaining scraps. With no more trees left, they couldn't build boats to leave the island and look for more food. So they fell into war and cannibalism, leaving only a few thousand people left to greet the Europeans. It's a perfect parable for our age of environmental collapse and resource depletion. Unfortunately, like a lot of parables, it isn't very historically accurate.

    Interpreting the actual evidence

    Lipo and his colleagues have spent years sifting through the physical evidence left behind on Easter Island by the ancient Rapa Nui. They believe that the population of 3,000 people met by Captain Roggeveen in 1722 wasn't the tattered remnant of a great civilization. Instead, they represented a normal population for the island. Lipo and other archaeologists have demonstrated how the moai could have been constructed by a population of hundreds rather than thousands, using clever engineering that was common among ancient people.

    Assuming a smaller population, it's not difficult to imagine that the group could survive on agriculture and fishing. Indeed, Roggeveen reports that the people he met on the island had plenty of food, which they shared with him and his crew. There was no sign of ecological meltdown, though the islanders certainly had an impact on the local environment.

    Still, there was one piece of evidence that remained pretty alarming. The island is strewn with sharpened pieces of obsidian, called mata'a, which look alarmingly like spearheads.

    When Captain Cook came to the island in 1774, members of his expedition reported that the Rapa Nui "had lances or spears made of thin, ill-shaped sticks, and pointed with a sharp triangular piece of black glassy lava." Given the superabundance of these "spears" all across the island, it seems obvious that a lot of murdering was going on.

    That's the myth that Lipo and his colleagues debunk in their new paper. They examined hundreds of mata'a, carefully photographing them and using elliptical Fourier analysis to compare the shapes of each mata'a. If these mata'a were being used for one specific task, namely war, you would expect that they would all have almost exactly the same shape. And you'd expect that shape to be extremely pointed in order to pierce flesh.

    Enlarge / Here you can see the outlines of all the mata'a that the researchers analyzed. The stem is connected to the sticks and therefore tends to be uniform in shape, but the blades themselves came in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. The researchers call them the "swiss army knives" of stone tools.

    Lipo and colleagues found nothing of the kind. In fact, the mata'a come in a range of shapes, and most of them would be terrible for stabbing. Shaped a bit like spades, they're generally too wide to sink deeply into flesh. Wear and tear on many of the blades revealed patterns that archaeologists recognize as coming from tasks like scraping hide and farming. All those mata'a left in the ground weren't the aftermath of battle—they were discarded hoes and rakes.

    But why did the population shrink after the Europeans arrived in the eighteenth century? Lipo has a single, stark answer: "Disease that is introduced by Europeans after contact."
    Smallpox and plague ripped through Easter Island, halving the population in a short time. This crash, whose results were observed by Europeans, strengthened the myth that the Rapa Nui were already in decline from a much larger population that had existed a thousand years before.

    A good model

    It's time to chuck our myths about Easter Island and learn what we can from scientific evidence. "I think we often assume that systematic violence between groups is inevitable, and in cases where resources are scarce (such as Easter Island) warfare is going to be almost a certainty. We tend to assume that prehistoric populations must have commonly experienced brutal competition," Lipo told Ars. "But when we look more broadly at human history, we find generally that we are pretty good at living in social groups and getting along with one another."

    Citing the evolutionary biologist Peter Turchin, famous for developing a theory of history called "cliodynamics," Lipo believes that the common thread in human history is cooperation rather than war. The fate of the Rapa Nui on Easter Island is often used to illustrate how humans destroy their communities with environmental destruction and warfare. But it might actually provide a good model for sustainable civilizations of the future. Lipo explained:
    Easter Island is a great case of this kind of sociality in which populations seem to have mediated competition over limited resources through the community building of statues. What looks like strange behavior to us is likely central to their success. This is an area we are following up on in our ongoing research. I think we have a lot to learn from Easter Island as to what it takes to survive on an isolated and remote island with limited resources. But rather than being a "scary parable" about the effects of cultural hubris and ultimate collapse, we can learn valuable insights into strategies that lead to cooperation, resilience, and sustainability.
    Antiquity, 2016. DOI: 10.15184/aqy.2015.189

    see article here:

    http://arstechnica.com/science/2016/...troyed-by-war/
    Last edited by Marlene; 03-03-2016 at 11:50 AM.

  6. #6
    Ancient Alien Newbie!
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    this is highly interesting. what gets me is that with all of the research and new findings and theories that get created from finding physical evidence of just about any kind, be it tools, hunting and fishing implements, boats, clothing, writing implements and writing material, etc., you'd think that modern humans in our modern day society would take these findings and try to somehow implement them into our current ways of life. what i mean is this:

    current society trends points toward vast consumption of finite resources and the debatable inability to get along and work things out, peacefully. these ancient peoples did just that, so it seems. they knew, so it seems, that their resources were limited, and the fact that somehow they needed to get along and be peaceful. it's something that modern day humans can't seem to figure out. we struggle to get along, at a portion of our population does, we consume vast amounts of our resources just to sustain our population, which in my opinion, if far too big for Earth to comfortably sustain.

  7. #7
    Ancient Alien Senior Member Marlene's Avatar
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    Statuesque beauties of the South Pacific: The mesmerising mysteries and traditions of Easter Island

    • Easter Island is 1,289 miles from its nearest neighbour in the South Pacific
    • Mystery surrounds the decades following its discovery by Dutch explorers
    • Today’s Rapa Nui islanders are trying to rescue their traditional culture


    By Sarah Gordon For The Mail On Sunday

    Published: 22:01 GMT, 11 February 2017 | Updated: 23:56 GMT, 11 February 2017






    see article here:

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/ar...er-Island.html

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